Darfur esta de nuevo en el centro de la polémica. Hace unos días, el Tribunal Penal internacional a emitido las primeras ordenes de arresto contra los responsables de las muertes producidas en la zona.
Tras la investigación llevada a cabo por el fiscal Luis Moreno-Ocampo, los jueces determinaron que había suficentes antecedentes para acusar a Ahmad Harun, ministro sudanés de Asuntos Humanitarios, y a Alí Kushayb, líder de la milicia de los 'janjaweed', como sospechosos en un total de 51 casos de crímenes de guerra y crímenes contra la Humanidad incluidos los de asesinato, violación, tortura y persecución de civiles en Darfur. Especificamente, los hechos que se someteran a juicio fueron cometidos en Darfur Occidental entre agosto de 2003 y marzo de 2004. El conflicto estalló en febrero de 2003 cuando rebeldes africanos tomaron las armas quejándose de décadas de abandono y discriminación por el Gobierno de Jartum. Sudán respondió recurriendo al Ejército y a la milicia árabe de los 'janjaweed'.
Warrants of Arrest for the Minister of State for Humanitarian Affairs of Sudan, and a leader of the Militia/Janjaweed
The Hague, 2 May 2007
Situation: Darfur (Sudan)
Case: The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Muhammad Harun ("Ahmad Harun") and Ali Muhammad Al Abd-Al-Rahman ("Ali Kushayb")
On 2 May 2007, Pre-Trial Chamber I issued warrants of arrest for crimes against humanity and war crimes for Ahmad Muhammad Harun, former Minister of State for the Interior of the Government of Sudan and currently Minister of State for Humanitarian Affairs, and Ali Muhammad Al Abd-Al-Rahman ("Ali Kushayb"), a leader of the Militia/Janjaweed.
Having examined the request and evidence submitted by the Prosecutor, the Chamber concluded that “there are reasonable grounds to believe that Ahmad Harun, by virtue of his position, had knowledge of the crimes committed against the civilian population and of the methods used by the Militia/Janjaweed; and that in his public speeches Ahmad Harun not only demonstrated that he knew that the Militia/Janjaweed were attacking civilians and pillaging towns and villages, but also personally encouraging the commission of such illegal acts.”
Also the Chamber concluded that there are reasonable grounds to believe that Ali Kushayb, leader of the Militia/Janjaweed in the Wadi Salih enlisted fighters, armed, funded and provided supplies to the Militia /Janjaweed under his command thereby intentionally contributing to the commissions of the crimes. He personally participated in some of the attacks against civilians.
The Chamber considers that there are reasonable grounds to believe that these persons will not voluntarily present themselves before the Court. Therefore, in order to meet the requirements of the Rome Statute the Chamber has decided to issue warrants of arrest.
The Chamber ordered the Registrar to prepare two requests for co-operation seeking the arrest and surrender of Ahmad Harun and Ali Kushayb and containing the relevant information and documents; and to transmit such requests to the competent Sudanese authorities in accordance with rule 176(2) of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence. All States Parties to the Rome Statute will also receive the information as well as all United Nations Security Council members that are not States Parties to the Rome Statute; and to Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Libya.
According to the findings of the Chamber, an armed conflict took place between the Government of Sudan including combatants from the Sudan People’s Armed Forces (“the Sudanese Armed Forces”) and the Popular Defence Force (the “PDF”) along with the Militia/Janjaweed against organised rebel groups, including the Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in Darfur, Sudan.
It is alleged that the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Militia/Janjaweed, acting together as part of the counter-insurgency campaign, carried out several attacks on the towns of Kodoom, Bindisi, Mukjar, Arawala and surrounding areas in 2003 and 2004. In the above mentioned towns criminal acts were committed against civilians primarily from the Fur, Zaghawa and Masalit populations.
Ahmad Harun served from 2003 to 2005 as Minister of the State for the Interior of the Government of Sudan and he was in charge of the management of the “Darfur Security desk” thereby co-ordinating the different bodies of the Government involved in the counter-insurgency, including the Police, the Armed Forces, the National Security and Intelligence Service and the Militia/Janjaweed.
Ali Kushayb was one of the most senior leaders in the Militia/Janjaweed and member of the PDF. He was perceived as the “mediator” between the leaders of the Militia/Janjaweed and the Government of Sudan.
The warrant of arrest for Ahmad Muhammad Harun lists 42 counts on the basis of his individual criminal responsibility (articles 25(3)(b) and 25(3)(d) of the Rome Statute) including:
Twenty counts of crimes against humanity (murder – articles 7(1)(a) and 25(3)(d); persecution – articles 7(1)(h) and 25(3)(d); forcible transfer of population – articles 7(1)(d) and 25(3)(d); rape – articles 7(1)(g) and 25(3)(d); inhumane acts – articles 7(1)(k) and 25(3)(d)); imprisonment or severe deprivation of liberty – articles 7(1)(e) and 25(3)(d); and torture – articles 7(1)(f)) and 25(3)(d); and
Twenty-two counts of war crimes (murder – articles 8(2)(c)(i) and 25(3)(d); attacks against the civilian population – articles 8(2)(e)(i) and 25(3)(d); destruction of property – articles 8(2)(e)(xii) and 25(3)(d); rape – articles 8(2)(e)(vi) and 25(3)(d); pillaging (articles 8(2)(e)(v) and 25(3)(d); and outrage upon personal dignity – articles 8(2)(c)(ii) and 25(3)(d)).
The warrant of arrest for Ali Kushayb lists 50 counts on the basis of his individual criminal responsibility (article 25(3)(a) and 25 (3)(d) of the Rome Statute) including:
Twenty-two counts of crimes against humanity (murder - article 7(1)(a); deportation or forcible transfer of population - article 7(1)(d); imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law - article 7(1)(e); tortures - article 7(1)(f); persecution - article 7(1)(h); inhumane acts of inflicting serious bodily injury and suffering - article 7(1)(k)).
Twenty-eight counts of war crimes (violence to life and person - article 8(2)(c)(i); outrage upon personal dignity in particular humiliating and degrading treatment - article 8(2)( c)(ii); intentionally directing an attack against a civilian population - article 8(2)(e)(i); pillaging - article 8(2)(e)(v); rape - article 8(2)(e)(vi); destroying or seizing the property – article 8(2)(e)(xii)).
Sobre los acusados sabemos que Ahmad Harun era considerado como uno de los miembros del círculo más cercano del presidente Omar al Bashir, y responsable de la seguridad en Darfur donde ayudó a reclutar, armar y financiar a los 'janjaweed', según los fiscales. Por su parte, Kushayb presuntamente era el "coronel de coroneles" que comandaba a los combatientes 'janjaweed' en Darfur Occidental.
Según ha determinado la fiscalía, ambos formaban parte de una conspiración para "perseguir a civiles que asociaban con los rebeldes". Su métodos fueron "ataques indiscriminados contra población civil, asesinato, violación, actos inhumanos, tratamiento cruel, encarcelamiento ilegal, saqueo, traslado forzado y destrucción de propiedades", según las 94 páginas del documento de la acusación que explican las acusaciones y la orden judicial para su traslado al tribunal con sede en La Haya.
Judges Endorse Prosecutor’s Evidence of Crimes in Darfur
The Hague, 2 May 2007
In a public decision, the Court’s Pre-Trial Chamber has ruled on the merits of the Prosecutor’s evidence against Ahmad Harun and Ali Kushayb, finding reasonable grounds to believe they are responsible for murder, rape, torture, the forced displacement of entire villages, and other war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.
“We completed an investigation under very difficult circumstances, from outside Darfur, and without exposing any of our witnesses. We transformed their stories into evidence, and now the judges have confirmed the strength of that evidence,” Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo said.
In 2003 and 2004, as State Minister of the Interior for the Government of the Sudan and head of the “Darfur Security desk,” Ahmad Harun joined with militia/Janjaweed leader Ali Kushayb to target and attack civilian populations in four villages in West Darfur. The attacks occurred when the armed conflict between the Government and rebel groups was at its most violent.
The Prosecution’s case not only highlights the connection between a senior minister in the Sudanese Government and a powerful militia/Janjaweed leader, it shows the underlying operational system that enabled massive crimes against civilians who were known not to be involved in the conflict.
“The judges have issued arrest warrants. As the territorial state, the Government of the Sudan has a legal duty to arrest Ahmad Harun and Ali Kushayb,” the Prosecutor said. “This is the International Criminal Court’s decision, and the Government has to respect it.”
The Prosecutor presented his evidence on 27 February 2007. That filing and the Pre-Trial Chamber’s decision is available atwww.icc-cpi.int.Hemos indicado antes la gravedad de lo que esta ocurriendo en todo Sudan, y especificamente en Darfur. Por ello, no es de extrañar que Harun se encuentra actualmente en Jartum. El ministro de Justicia sudanés, Mohamed Ali al Mardi, ha dicho que las autoridades sudanesas han llevado a cabo su propia investigación sobre las actividades de Harun y no han encontrado "ni un rastro de pruebas" en su contra. En el caso del segundo acusado, el gobierno sudanés afirma que ha detenido a Kushayb a la espera de una investigación interna, pero varios testigos han informado a AP en Darfur de que éste viaja libremente de una localidad de esta región a otra bajo protección policial.
CASO DARFUR EN LA CORTE PENAL INTERNACIONAL